JUDO (from Chinese: "gentle way"), system of unarmed combat, now primarily
a sport, was, as Aikido, derived from the Japanese soft style techniques termed
Jujutsu/Jujitsu. Sporting judo rules are complex; the objective is to throw
the opponent cleanly, or pin him, or master him by applying pressure to arm
joints or to the neck. Techniques are generally intended to turn an opponent's
force to one's own advantage rather than to oppose it directly.
A ritual of
courtesy in practice is intended to promote an attitude of calm readiness
and confidence. The usual costume, known as judogi, is a loose jacket and
trousers of strong white cloth. White belts are worn by novices and black
by masters, with intermediate grades denoted by other colours.
(1860-1938) collected the knowledge of the old jujitsu schools of the Japanese
samurai and in 1882 founded his Kodokan School of judo, the beginning of the
sport in its modern form. By the 1960s judo associations had been established
in most countries and affiliated to the International Judo Federation with
headquarters in Paris.
Judo was included in Olympic Games competition for
the first time at Tokyo in 1964 and held regularly from 1972. World judo championships
for women began in 1980. Women's Olympic competition began in 1992.
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